Active Measures

Активные Мероприятия | Aktivnyye Meropriyatiya: Agent-operational measures aimed at exerting useful influence on aspects of the political life of a target country which are of interest, its foreign policy, the solution of international problems, misleading the adversary, undermining and weakening his positions, the disruption of his hostile plans, and the achievement of other aims. (Mitrokhin, Vasili (2013-01-11). KGB Lexicon: The Soviet Intelligence Officers Handbook (p. 13). Taylor and Francis. Kindle Edition.)

Off to the Races

Published: 2019 February 21

Notes and Observations

Source of tweets
223 White List Twitter accounts, e.g. official RU govt. accounts and Kremlin media outlets, programs, and personas. In this case, the RU govt. accounts remained silent regarding particular candidates, leaving it to the Kremlin media personas and programs to comment. 142 tweets were examined (note that where a tweet mentioned more than one candidate it was counted more than one time - where that is the case it is noted in the appropriate table).

Account Mentions of Candidates Affiliation/Type
anyaparampil 18 RT America, Media persona**
calebmaupin 15 RT, Media persona
dancohen3000 15 RT, Media persona
afshinrattansi 9 RT, Media persona (host at Underground_RT)
stranahan 9 Sputnik, Media persona (host at Fault Lines on Sputnik)
underground_rt 8 RT program
rachblevins 7 RT America, Media persona
ivorcrotty 6 Creative & Innovation @rt_com, Frmr Head of Social, @Rt_Digital
_chrismaguire 5 RT, Media persona
georgegalloway 4 RT, Media persona (host at Sputnik on RT)
leecamp 4 RT, Media persona (host at Redacted Tonight on RT)
rt_america 4 RT channel
rt_com 4 RT home office, Moscow
oksanaboyko_rt 3 RT, Media persona (host at Worlds Apart on RT)
tabethawatching 3 RT, Media persona (host at Watching the Hawks on RT)
tyrelwatching 3 RT, Media persona (host at Watching the Hawks on RT)
actualidadrt 2 RT Spanish-language channel
hollandcooke 2 RT America, Media persona
manilachan 2 RT America, Media persona
natashasweatte 2 RT, Media persona
rt_deutsch 2 RT German-language channel
al_kuz_rt 1 RT Moscow, Media persona
documark 1 Sputnik UK, Editor-in-Chief/Bureau Chief
gayatrigalloway 1 RT, Media persona (host at Sputnik on RT)
helena_villarrt 1 RT America, Media persona
irinagalushkort 1 RT Moscow, Media persona
ivanrodionov_ 1 RT Deutsch, Media persona (Chefredakteur)
kitklarenberg 1 Sputnik UK, Media persona
laurietimmers 1 Sputnik UK, Media persona
nadiratudor 1 RT UK, Media persona
nebojsamalic 1 RT America, Media persona
rt_russian 1 RT Russian-language channel
rtuknews 1 RT UK channel
shottlandka 1 Sputnik UK, Media persona (Executive Producer)
sputnikint 1 Sputnik, Kremlin media outlet operated by Rossiya Segodnya
yaro_rt 1 RT, Media Persona

Image of table


Time period
01 January to 06 February, 06 February to 12 February, 12 February to 19 February. This is a work in progress, and I've been moving towards collecting on 6-day intervals. The first 6 6-day periods are lumped together. Deal with it.

2019-01-01--2019-02-06 Mentions Avg per 6 day period
Gabbard 51 8.5
Harris 12 2.0
Sanders 10 1.7
Warren 3 0.5
Gillibrand 2 0.3
Biden 1 0.2

Image of table


2019-02-06--2019-02-12 Mentions
Gabbard 10
Sanders 5
Harris 4
Warren 4
Biden 2

Image of table


2019-02-12--2019-02-19 Mentions
Sanders 25
Harris 6
Biden 3
Gabbard 3
Warren 1

Image of table


Number of tweets mentioning candidates
Throughout the month of January Gabbard dominated, as has been noted by journalists and researchers. Gabbard continued to lead from 06 to 12 February, with Warren and Harris and Sanders trailing (roughly 2 tweets mention Gabbard to every 1 tweet for the other three, and recall that tweets mentioning Harris are generally negative). From 12 February to 19 February Sanders moved ahead, boosted by rumors and then confirmation that he was running in 2020. Harris rose to 2nd place but well behind Sanders and with a negative focus, with Gabbard and Biden neck and neck and Warren bringing up the rear.

Nature of tweets where a candidate is mentioned
Tweets mentioning a particular candidate were generally favorable or at least reported straight. Exceptions include strong support for/defense of Tulsi Gabbard, and strongly negative remarks targeting Kamala Harris and Joe Biden. On a number of occasions two candidates are mentioned in a compare or contrast fashion, typically Gabbard/Harris where Harris is presented negatively, or Gabbard/Sanders they are presented as similar but with different strengths/focus (e.g. Gabbard's foreign policy positions are preferred over those of Sanders, who was dinged over his opposition to Russian interests in Venezuela).

URLs of Tweets

Tweet URL Note
twitter.com/_chrismaguire/status/1083030483603206144 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/_chrismaguire/status/1083030483603206144 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/_chrismaguire/status/1087806297540648961 DELETED TWEET
twitter.com/_chrismaguire/status/1092136038078840834
twitter.com/_chrismaguire/status/1092530328449794049
twitter.com/actualidadrt/status/1097824215993061377
twitter.com/actualidadrt/status/1097866876762365952
twitter.com/afshinrattansi/status/1097593309357322241
twitter.com/afshinrattansi/status/1097621863226736640 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/afshinrattansi/status/1097621863226736640 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/afshinrattansi/status/1097798227280228352
twitter.com/afshinrattansi/status/1097798395861848064 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/afshinrattansi/status/1097798395861848064 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/afshinrattansi/status/1097798446843654144
twitter.com/afshinrattansi/status/1097843556583174146
twitter.com/afshinrattansi/status/1097843989640896512
twitter.com/al_kuz_rt/status/1094882740867076096
twitter.com/anyaparampil/status/1090098216073396224 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/anyaparampil/status/1090098216073396224 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/anyaparampil/status/1090506412235608065
twitter.com/anyaparampil/status/1092209924514426880
twitter.com/anyaparampil/status/1092212320409960455
twitter.com/anyaparampil/status/1092213106158243840
twitter.com/anyaparampil/status/1093011956276125696 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/anyaparampil/status/1093011956276125696 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/anyaparampil/status/1093258000545054721
twitter.com/anyaparampil/status/1093259202708017152 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/anyaparampil/status/1093259202708017152 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/anyaparampil/status/1093260116202278918 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/anyaparampil/status/1093260116202278918 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/anyaparampil/status/1093260937077948430
twitter.com/anyaparampil/status/1093262771117064209 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/anyaparampil/status/1093262771117064209 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/anyaparampil/status/1095188361868918785 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/anyaparampil/status/1095188361868918785 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/calebmaupin/status/1092426533145362440
twitter.com/calebmaupin/status/1092427172013330433 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/calebmaupin/status/1092427172013330433 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/calebmaupin/status/1092979944819474432
twitter.com/calebmaupin/status/1092982034618859521
twitter.com/calebmaupin/status/1092982208036511744
twitter.com/calebmaupin/status/1092985181466693632
twitter.com/calebmaupin/status/1093012182101573633
twitter.com/calebmaupin/status/1093012642988523520
twitter.com/calebmaupin/status/1093022579168866304
twitter.com/calebmaupin/status/1095032694910738434
twitter.com/calebmaupin/status/1097344596269514752
twitter.com/calebmaupin/status/1097346530506358785
twitter.com/calebmaupin/status/1097703718538145793
twitter.com/calebmaupin/status/1097870120905596929
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1091828962353954823
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1091868008182677505
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1091916936491950081
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1091916945463615488
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1091917030377340928
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1091917039655108608
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1092103197001433089
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1092104867857002503
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1092460846251429889
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1092461045870968833
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1092512517753106434
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1092817150748839937
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1092956952303329282
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1093173297464922113
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1093173313462042624
twitter.com/documark/status/1089452488070234113
twitter.com/gayatrigalloway/status/1092441513387282432
twitter.com/georgegalloway/status/1093176291304656896
twitter.com/georgegalloway/status/1093190013641203712
twitter.com/georgegalloway/status/1093200091391893505
twitter.com/georgegalloway/status/1097825189843345408
twitter.com/helena_villarrt/status/1092246229147357185
twitter.com/hollandcooke/status/1096579368191709184
twitter.com/hollandcooke/status/1097842791063932928
twitter.com/irinagalushkort/status/1088077054212493313
twitter.com/ivanrodionov_/status/1087676794180898817
twitter.com/ivorcrotty/status/1091957782855802880
twitter.com/ivorcrotty/status/1091961546136346624
twitter.com/ivorcrotty/status/1092147552315731968
twitter.com/ivorcrotty/status/1092162889832689664
twitter.com/ivorcrotty/status/1092307695221334016
twitter.com/ivorcrotty/status/1092529100084916224
twitter.com/kitklarenberg/status/1093215760086900737
twitter.com/laurietimmers/status/1097875224899608576
twitter.com/leecamp/status/1092789296120168449
twitter.com/leecamp/status/1092848759023824896
twitter.com/leecamp/status/1095442170104836096
twitter.com/leecamp/status/1097890970123886598
twitter.com/manilachan/status/1086346976113889281
twitter.com/manilachan/status/1097874458684129280
twitter.com/nadiratudor/status/1093439448577126401
twitter.com/natashasweatte/status/1092955565892882432 DUPLICATE*
twitter.com/natashasweatte/status/1092955565892882432 DUPLICATE*
twitter.com/nebojsamalic/status/1093646867756400640
twitter.com/oksanaboyko_rt/status/1092330434556579840
twitter.com/oksanaboyko_rt/status/1096874280787292160
twitter.com/oksanaboyko_rt/status/1096887503569735681
twitter.com/rachblevins/status/1091906855448858626
twitter.com/rachblevins/status/1092984884711297024 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/rachblevins/status/1092984884711297024 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/rachblevins/status/1092985812994674688 DUPLICATE*
twitter.com/rachblevins/status/1092985812994674688 DUPLICATE*
twitter.com/rachblevins/status/1094982360884568065
twitter.com/rachblevins/status/1096456335166791680
twitter.com/rt_america/status/1094286231322669057
twitter.com/rt_america/status/1095113298255728642
twitter.com/rt_america/status/1096961527209512960
twitter.com/rt_america/status/1097822414510215170
twitter.com/rt_com/status/1093211472233140227
twitter.com/rt_com/status/1095359375898685440
twitter.com/rt_com/status/1097822374051958785
twitter.com/rt_com/status/1097863169823920135
twitter.com/rt_deutsch/status/1093125521762865152
twitter.com/rt_deutsch/status/1097858384710242305
twitter.com/rt_russian/status/1092772771883569153
twitter.com/rtuknews/status/1097823072017625088
twitter.com/shottlandka/status/1085097023899123712
twitter.com/sputnikint/status/1097822943491571712
twitter.com/stranahan/status/1092775239212138496
twitter.com/stranahan/status/1092775509388333057
twitter.com/stranahan/status/1092789941602443264
twitter.com/stranahan/status/1092790173828554752
twitter.com/stranahan/status/1093132781247442949 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/stranahan/status/1093132781247442949 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/stranahan/status/1093164964255334404
twitter.com/stranahan/status/1097833432908853248
twitter.com/stranahan/status/1097834776671764480
twitter.com/tabethawatching/status/1088734758924898304
twitter.com/tabethawatching/status/1092139843650576385
twitter.com/tabethawatching/status/1094721308515024896
twitter.com/tyrelwatching/status/1087829565949575168
twitter.com/tyrelwatching/status/1092159505708797955
twitter.com/tyrelwatching/status/1093346635604807680
twitter.com/underground_rt/status/1091050106164576257
twitter.com/underground_rt/status/1093084933785112576 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/underground_rt/status/1093084933785112576 DUPLICATE-2_CANDIDATES
twitter.com/underground_rt/status/1093876795605164032
twitter.com/underground_rt/status/1096792724651589632
twitter.com/underground_rt/status/1096861743912046593
twitter.com/underground_rt/status/1097823669986971649
twitter.com/underground_rt/status/1097846402783297542
twitter.com/yaro_rt/status/1092333962977050629


Tweets amplified by Kremlin media personas
60 out of the 142 tweets examined were in fact retweets of other content, sometimes from other Kremlin media personas, and other times amplifying the tweets of personas not so clearly tied to Kremlin media outlets (referred to here as 'grey list'). In other words, rather than grey list accounts amplifying what the Kremlin is putting out more directly, the Kremlin media accounts are amplifying the grey list.

Apparent tweet URL Retweet Amplified tweet URL
twitter.com/_chrismaguire/status/1083030483603206144 YES twitter.com/OpenSecretsDC/status/1082695932142125056
twitter.com/_chrismaguire/status/1083030483603206144 YES twitter.com/OpenSecretsDC/status/1082695932142125056
twitter.com/actualidadrt/status/1097824215993061377 YES twitter.com/RTultimahora/status/1097824158921166848
twitter.com/afshinrattansi/status/1097593309357322241 YES twitter.com/ggreenwald/status/1094689207417794560
twitter.com/afshinrattansi/status/1097621863226736640 YES twitter.com/MaxBlumenthal/status/1097621029407592449
twitter.com/afshinrattansi/status/1097621863226736640 YES twitter.com/MaxBlumenthal/status/1097621029407592449
twitter.com/afshinrattansi/status/1097798227280228352 YES twitter.com/EmmaVigeland/status/1097369518349971456
twitter.com/afshinrattansi/status/1097798395861848064 YES twitter.com/steinhauserNH1/status/1097594910499393542
twitter.com/afshinrattansi/status/1097798395861848064 YES twitter.com/steinhauserNH1/status/1097594910499393542
twitter.com/afshinrattansi/status/1097798446843654144 YES twitter.com/steinhauserNH1/status/1097683471118598149
twitter.com/afshinrattansi/status/1097843556583174146 YES twitter.com/Underground_RT/status/1097823669986971649
twitter.com/afshinrattansi/status/1097843989640896512 YES twitter.com/wikileaks/status/1097843880903536640
twitter.com/anyaparampil/status/1090506412235608065 YES twitter.com/BlackRose_NYC/status/1090039921778327552
twitter.com/anyaparampil/status/1095188361868918785 YES twitter.com/BrianBeckerDC/status/1095000330713120768
twitter.com/anyaparampil/status/1095188361868918785 YES twitter.com/BrianBeckerDC/status/1095000330713120768
twitter.com/calebmaupin/status/1092427172013330433 YES twitter.com/PatTheBerner/status/1091914166808395776
twitter.com/calebmaupin/status/1092427172013330433 YES twitter.com/PatTheBerner/status/1091914166808395776
twitter.com/calebmaupin/status/1092982208036511744 YES twitter.com/sahouraxo/status/1092221846899040256
twitter.com/calebmaupin/status/1093012642988523520 YES twitter.com/SputnikInt/status/1093012158156165121
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1091828962353954823 YES twitter.com/_whitneywebb/status/1091803597929615360
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1091868008182677505 YES twitter.com/aaronjmate/status/1091740249607335936
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1091916945463615488 YES twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1091916945463615488
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1091917030377340928 YES twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1091916936491950081
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1091917039655108608 YES twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1091916945463615488
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1092103197001433089 YES twitter.com/aaronjmate/status/1092102719513473025
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1092104867857002503 YES twitter.com/KatrinaNation/status/1091840867185373184
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1092461045870968833 YES twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1092460846251429889
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1092512517753106434 YES twitter.com/MaxBlumenthal/status/1092511496834347008
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1092956952303329282 YES twitter.com/BenjaminNorton/status/1092940571595997189
twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1093173313462042624 YES twitter.com/dancohen3000/status/1093173297464922113
twitter.com/documark/status/1089452488070234113 YES twitter.com/johnpilger/status/1089415774010310656
twitter.com/gayatrigalloway/status/1092441513387282432 YES twitter.com/sahouraxo/status/1092221846899040256
twitter.com/georgegalloway/status/1093176291304656896 YES twitter.com/anyaparampil/status/1093011956276125696
twitter.com/georgegalloway/status/1093190013641203712 YES twitter.com/briebriejoy/status/1092994904970674176
twitter.com/georgegalloway/status/1093200091391893505 YES twitter.com/Williamos6/status/1093193894710390785
twitter.com/georgegalloway/status/1097825189843345408 YES twitter.com/CubaMac24/status/1097823701289054208
twitter.com/hollandcooke/status/1096579368191709184 YES twitter.com/MSNBC/status/1096578791663652864
twitter.com/hollandcooke/status/1097842791063932928 YES twitter.com/Morning_Joe/status/1097822115892547584
twitter.com/irinagalushkort/status/1088077054212493313 YES twitter.com/mtracey/status/1087876406829350917
twitter.com/ivorcrotty/status/1091957782855802880 YES twitter.com/KatrinaNation/status/1091840867185373184
twitter.com/ivorcrotty/status/1091961546136346624 YES twitter.com/ggreenwald/status/1091829366328315905
twitter.com/ivorcrotty/status/1092147552315731968 YES twitter.com/ggreenwald/status/1092060704226664448
twitter.com/ivorcrotty/status/1092529100084916224 YES twitter.com/DanielleRyanJ/status/1092194052257312768
twitter.com/kitklarenberg/status/1093215760086900737 YES twitter.com/aaronjmate/status/1093212959424372738
twitter.com/leecamp/status/1092848759023824896 YES twitter.com/LeeCamp/status/1092789296120168449
twitter.com/manilachan/status/1086346976113889281 YES twitter.com/RT_America/status/1086016562832666624
twitter.com/nadiratudor/status/1093439448577126401 YES twitter.com/sahouraxo/status/1093363138148352000
twitter.com/rt_america/status/1094286231322669057 YES twitter.com/RT_com/status/1094285545130389505
twitter.com/rt_america/status/1097822414510215170 YES twitter.com/RT_com/status/1097822374051958785
twitter.com/rt_com/status/1097863169823920135 YES twitter.com/Underground_RT/status/1097846402783297542
twitter.com/rtuknews/status/1097823072017625088 YES twitter.com/RT_com/status/1097822374051958785
twitter.com/shottlandka/status/1085097023899123712 YES twitter.com/MaxBlumenthal/status/1084351040638603264
twitter.com/stranahan/status/1093132781247442949 YES twitter.com/ggreenwald/status/1093131085490413568
twitter.com/stranahan/status/1093132781247442949 YES twitter.com/ggreenwald/status/1093131085490413568
twitter.com/stranahan/status/1093164964255334404 YES twitter.com/bennyjohnson/status/1093156237565456391
twitter.com/tabethawatching/status/1092139843650576385 YES twitter.com/nytpolitics/status/1091395373749420039
twitter.com/tabethawatching/status/1094721308515024896 YES twitter.com/rebeccanagle/status/1094715782909575168
twitter.com/tyrelwatching/status/1087829565949575168 YES twitter.com/mtracey/status/1087722028717801472
twitter.com/tyrelwatching/status/1092159505708797955 YES twitter.com/ggreenwald/status/1092060704226664448
twitter.com/tyrelwatching/status/1093346635604807680 YES twitter.com/ShoebridgeC/status/1093205647087321095

* mislabeled as duplicate due to mention of two candidates, corrected 2019-02-22
** Parampil has recently left RT America and will no longer be monitored as a Kremlin media persona, noted on 2019-02-22